Kompas.com has published a list of five National Parks in Bali and Nusa Tenggara. As prescribed by law (Udang-Udang No 5 Tahun 1990), National Parks are established by the Indonesian Government to preserve and protect biological diversity and the indigenous ecosystem of the Country. The National Park System of Indonesia also seeks to sustain natural flora and fauna food chains.
The management system of national parks in Indonesia is done by zones divided along the lines of research, science, education, cultivation support, tourism, and recreation. Nationwide, are 54 areas designated as National Parks stretching from Sabang (Aceh, North Sumatra) to Merauke (Irian).
We highlight here six national parks in Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, and West Nusa Tenggara.
Taman Nasional Bali Barat – West Bali National Park
Located in the northwest corner of the Island of Bali, Taman Nasional Bali Barat (West Bali National Park) covers a total of 77,000 hectares – an area roughly equivalent to 10% of the total land area of the Province.
The West Bali National Park is the only National Park in the Province of Bali and is known for its biodiversity of fauna, flora, and marine life. At least 160 species of protected flora and fauna live at the Park – a list that includes wild oxen, deer, primates, bats, and various species of birds.
The West Bali National Park is also home to the critically endangered and iconic Bali Starling – Rothschild’s mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) – known locally as a Bali Mynah.
Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani – Mount Rinjani National Park – Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara
A national park on the island of Lombok and situated around Lombok’s largest volcano, Mount Rinjani National Park ranges from an elevation of 500 meters to 3,726 meters above sea level. Several mountains are near Mount Rinjani: Gunung (Mt) Pelawangan, Gunung Daya, Gunung Sangkareang, Gunung Buah Mangge, and Gunung Kondo. Visitors can encounter noteworthy flora and fauna while trekking on Mount Rinjani, including Rinjani owls, monkeys, Flores Eagles, and exotic wild orchids.
Taman Nasional Manupeu Tanah Daru Laiwangi Wanggameti (Matalawa) – Sumba Island
Taman Nasional MataLawa is located in Central Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara. Comprised of two parts – Manupeu Tanah Daru and Laiwangi Wanggameti, these parks cover 50.077,30 and 42.009,39 hectares, respectively. This area of 92.086,69 hectares collectively represents 10% of the total land area of the Island of Sumba and is known jointly as Taman Nasional Matalawa.
Taman Nasional Matalawa is the only conservation area on the Island of Sumba and a vitally important habitat for two endangered bird species: the Sumba Cockatoo and the Sumba Hornbill. This National Park is home to at least 159 species of birds, 41 varieties of dragonflies, six types of amphibians, 30 species of reptiles, and 28 types of mammals.
Taman Nasional Kelimutu – Flores Island
Located in the Regency of Ende on the Island of Flores in East Nusa Tenggara, The Kelimutu National Park covers 5,356.5o hectares. A short drive from the picturesque coastal city of Ende, the Kelimutu National Park is internationally renowned as the home of three multi-colored crater lakes at the peak of Mount Kelimutu. The three adjoining lakes change their colors in response to weather conditions, volcanic changes, geological influences,
Komodo National Park – Komodo Island Group, East Nusa Tenggara
Arguably the crown jewel of Indonesian National Parks – the Komodo National Park is located on a group of 142 small islands situated in the straits between the East Nusa Tenggara islands of Sumbawa and Flores, comprised of 58,499 hectares of land area and 114,801 of sea area.
Home to a wide range of exotic flora and fauna, including the exceptionally rare minor sulfur-crested cockatoo and Komodo dragon celebrated as the world’s largest monitor lizard.
Mount Tambora National Park – Sumbawa Island, West Nusa Tenggara
Taman Nasional Gunung Tamora is located in the regencies of Bima and Dompu in West Nusa Tenggara. Occupying a total land area of 71,645.74 hectares, this Park offers unrivaled natural beauty and trekking opportunities to climb the historic Mount Tambora Volcano (2,850 meters) – the scene of what is said to be the largest volcanic eruption in recorded human history in 1815. Before the eruption, Mount Tambora’s elevation was 1,500 meters higher at 4,300 meters.
The area is renowned for archaeological studies of the surrounding communities obliterated by the 1815 eruption.
The Park is home to scenic rivers, distinctive flora, and a range of interesting bird life that represent a paradise for ornithologists comprised of the yellow-crested cockatoo, red-headed Nuri, Kirik-Kirik Australia (Merops ornatus), green jungle fowl, Black Drongo, Gray Bentet Bird (Lanius schach), Australian suck honey eater, and Brahminy Kite (Bondol Eagle).
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